Practical Performances in Web applications #1: Making it faster

Important notice: the following post is likely to be largely modified in the next days due to the importance of this topic in the scope of my Master project.

An obvious criteria of usability for an application in general is its performances. This criteria encompasses the initial load time of the application and the potential transitions time between the different states of the application (e.g. the different screens of a desktop applications or the different pages of a Website). There are two complementary ways to tackle it:

  • identifying the technical parameters involved in the length of those load times and taking actions to make the application faster,
  • identifying the psychological factors of perceived performance by the user and taking actions to make the application feel faster.

Making the application faster

Over the past decade, performance on the Web is an area that gained an increased attention as Websites moved from static text-based content to dynamic and multimedia Web applications. The literature is an important source of information about back-end performances, informing about the different servers (e.g. Hu et al 2007), architectures (e.g. Barroso et al 2003) and patterns (e.g. Pyarali et al 1999).

Lately, majors actors of the Internet including Yahoo and Google started to advocate front-end optimisation as an easy and effective way to achieve performances on the Web. Yahoo published guidelines for “High-performance web sites” (Souders 2008 and its online and more up-to-date conterpart: Best Practices for Speeding Up Your Web Site) along with a browser plugin which measures the performances of a Web page against those guidelines: YSlow.

The approach adopted in ToDoSo was to delegate the responsibility of back-end optimisation by using a cloud computing service and an existing Web application framework, while concentrating on front-end optimisations using Yahoo’s resources.

Back-end performances – the infrastructure

One of the fastest growing trends about Web infrastructure during the past two years seems to be the cloud computing.

Cloud computing is a style of computing in which dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources are provided as a service over the Internet. Users need not have knowledge of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure in the “cloud” that supports them.
Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia

In the case of Web applications such as ToDoSo, it allows project managers to rely on a third’s expertise in building, refining and maintaining an efficient infrastructure which will run the application in optimal conditions.

In addition to the enterprise-oriented cloud computing offers (see DELL, Sun Microsystems, Microsoft, IBM, Joyent and Vmware services), there are now more affordable solutions aimed at developing projects such as Amazon EC2, Google App Engine, Engine Yard and Aptana Cloud.

The latter has been chosen in ToDoSo…

  • because it is based on Joyent services, which is a guaranty that the infrastructure will be able to scale with the application until it becomes the next Facebook,
  • because of its low starting price ($0.027/hour, second only to Google’s free plan),
  • because of its large variety of preconfigured environments (PHP, Java, Jaxer, Rails, Python) which makes it possible to switch easily if the first choice proves to be a bad one,
  • and because of its tight integration within the Integrated Development Environment used throughout this project ‒ Aptana Studio ‒, effectively reducing the complexity of the deployment.

Back-end performances – the development Framework

Performances were not a key factor when it came to choose the development framework for ToDoSo. There is a vast choice of existing frameworks for Web applications; producing an objective comparison of their respective performances would have therefore required a tremendous amount of work that this project could not obviously afford. The choice was limited to the Open Source frameworks available on the chosen infrastructure and was actually based on the gentleness of their learning curve. Additional details are provided in the section related to “Developer Friendly technologies”.

Being Open Source software, it would be possible to fine-tune the application on different levels later in the development process, if required. It should also be noted that the less expensive cloud computing service for the Microsoft .Net platform appeared to be Amazon EC2, starting at $0.125/hour, i.e. 460% the price of the first plan in Aptana Cloud.

Front-end performances – Yahoo guidelines

Yahoo’s “Best Practices for Speeding Up Your Web Site” is a set of 34 best practices which can significantly improve the speed and responsiveness of a Web site. The following part describes which have been applied to ToDoSo and how.

These rules can be summarized into “reduce the amount of external resources to download”.

For that purpose, RockstarApps provides the JsLex plugin for Aptana Studio. Once installed, <link> or <script> tags can simply be selected from the source of a Web page; a dedicated options in the right-click menu can then be used to concatenate, minify using YUI Compressor and archive in gzip the source files all at once, while the selected tags are replaced by a single one pointing at the new optimised resource.

These rules can be summarized in “improve the external resources download speed”.

A [CDN] is a system of computers networked together across the Internet that cooperate transparently to distribute content for the purposes of improving performance and scalability.
‒ Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia

Just as for cloud computing, there are enterprise-sized CDN, the most famous one being Akamai as well as solutions adapted to smaller projects. Amazon offers two services, Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) and CloudFront, which, once combined, constitute a CDN with no minimal fees and a competitive pricing: according to Bob Buffone, the monthly cost for a Website receiving more than 200 visitors a day is around $0.15[1. Just Jump: Start Using Clouds and CDNs].

There is another Eclipse plugin for Amazon Web Services by RockstarApps which allows Web developers to upload static resources to Amazon S3. The gzip compression must be applied before uploading the resources on S3 since, being a passive server, it does not archive files on the fly. Appropriate headers must therefore be set on the files (“content-type: text/css” and “content-encoding: gzip” for a CSS, “content-type: text/javascript” and “content-encoding: gzip” for a JavaScript), which is automatically done for files with the extension “.css.gz” or “.js.gz” by the plugin. In Safari and Google Chrome however, the extension takes precedent on the headers; the .gz suffix has therefore to be removed, which is not possible in the current version of the plugin.

Yahoo developed its own image optimisation tool in accordance to this guideline,, which can be used directly from within the YSlow plugin. As of July 2009, Gracepointafterfive developed their own tool, punypng, claiming for their state of the art solution to be second to none. Although no benchmarks have been produced by independent testers, the early results exposed by the creator of the tool seemed encouraging enough to justify its use for ToDoSo.

During the development of the different prototypes of this project, JavaScript already proved to be of a major importance in the operation of the Graphical User Interface. The library of choice for this project was jQuery, a lightweight piece of JavaScript (about 19KB once minified and archived) with a clean and easy to learn API making DOM traversing and manipulation, event handling, effects and ajax implementation a breeze. An important documentation and optimisation work has been undertaken to use the library in compliance with those guidelines.

  • Finally, some instructions have been ignored because either because they were not relevant to the chosen development framework (e.g. Flush the Buffer Early) or because the problem they were dealing with did not appeared in ToDoSo (e.g. instructions related to the use of cookies or iframes)


By getting familiar with simple rules that have then been applied during the development of the application, choosing affordable cloud computing and CDN solutions and using few simple tools aimed at front-end performances improvements, the load time of the project’s home-page is now inferior to 2 seconds despite the dozen images displayed on it.

It should however be noted that some of those strategies have not yet been applied to the two online prototypes, since they are early previews that will be vastly modified before being usable in real conditions.